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RESEARCH JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT

RESEARCH JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT

Volume 7, No. (4), December (2003)

Study of the chromatographic behaviour of the model compunds in submicellar RP-HPLC with Triton X-100 by means of multifactor design

Marina Rukhadze*, George Bezarashvili, Maya Kutkhashvili and Tamar Sarajishvili

            The influence of constituents of mobile phase (concentration of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and organic modifier content) and its flow-rate as principal factors on the chromatographic characteristics of the model compounds by threefactoral mathematical design of the first order was investigated. The independent influence of mentioned principal factors as well as effects of double and triple interactions between them on both retention factor and height equivalent to a theoretical plate of the model compunds of different nature (anionic, cationic, neutral and zwitterionic) were revealed.

  Synthesis, Characterization and Analytical Study of a new Resin based on Humic Acid

A.A. Abdul Halim, B.F.Ali*and A.S. Abdul Nabi

          Humic acid (HA) was extracted from an imperfectly drained marsh in Iraq using dilute aqueous NaOH solution. New cross-linked HA-bis-phenol formaldehyde copolymer was synthesized in basic medium. The extraction efficiency of the prepared resin was examined by batch process towards several metal ions (Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+). The effect of pH and treatment times was studied and total loading capacity of the resin for each metal ion was also determined. The resin showed high affinity for the above metal ions with capability of almost complete regeneration for Zn2+ and Mn2+.

  Level of Occurence of Some Metals in Water of the River Hooghly within Kolkata Metropolitan Area

P.B. Maity, T. Sinha and P.B. Ghosh*

            The level of occurrence of some metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), cromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were estimated in water of the river Hooghly for six times in a year. The average levels of metals followed the order Zn>Pb>Cr> Cd>Ni>Co>As>Hg. Present study revealed that the dissolved constituents of Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were above the ranges of unpolluted water indicating their contamination throughout the season in cases of Pb, Fe and Zn and occasional for Cd and Cr. The metals Ni, Co and As almost remained in natural level while Hg was always below the detection limit of 0.0001 ppm. The water area betweenKamarhati and Gardenreach could be identified as the probable area of contamination of these metals.

Olive Stones Activated Carbon Decomposition of Ozone in Water

Monia Guiza*,  Abdelmottaleb Ouederni and Souad Najar

             In aqueous solutions molecular ozone (O3) decomposes rapidly into secondary radical or ionic species such as (OH°, O3-, O2-, …). This decomposition is accelerated by many factors essentially the pH, the temperature or the presence of organic or inorganic compounds in the solution. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the addition of solid particles of activated carbon produced in the laboratory from olive stones (OSAC), on the rate of ozone decomposition in aqueous solutions. We find that the rate of decomposition of ozone in these conditions is correctly described by a pseudo  first order kinetic. Experimental results show that an addition of 15mg/l of the olive stones activated carbon  enhanced the rate constant of the P and Q controlled chain depletion by about a factor of two. We find that the decomposition increases linearly with the weight of OSAC (W) :                                   and that the kinetic is promoted by a specific area increase.

 Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by different bio-waste materials

Navneet Joshi, Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia and Dinesh Goyal*

            Different bio-waste materials such as waste carrot pulp, tea-leaves, wood powder, paper mill sludge and microbial waste from fermentation industry were compared with activated carbon for metal sorption efficiency in batch mode. Maximum uptake of Zn, Pb, Fe and Ni was at pH 4.0 by 2 % biomass. Most of the wastes had maximum biosorption efficiency for Pb among all metals. For the same metal different biomass had different removal efficiency. A combination of paper mill sludge and microbial bio-waste was effective in simultaneous removal of Pb, Zn and Ni from multi-metal metallic solution which was in the order of 93% Pb>87% Zn>76% Ni. These wastes are available in large quantity and can be used as an alternative to existing commercial adsorbents for removal of Pb, Zn and Ni from effluents.

 Photodegradation of Methylene Blue using Sol-Gel derived TiO2 Films on Glass

Zulkarnain Zainal, Lee Kong Hui, Mohd. Zobir Hussein, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap and Irmawati Ramli

           The photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution was carried out using titanium dioxide coated on glass as photocatalyst. The experiments were run under the illumination of blue fluorescent lamps. TiO2 coated glass was prepared by sol-gel technique. Air was pumped into the mixture to ensure continuous supply of oxygen in the mixture. Surface morphology of the TiO2 coated glass was studied using SEM-EDX analysis. The existence ratio of titanium to oxygen was approximately 1:2 which matched the molecular formulae of TiO2. Methylene blue removal rate was studied based on the effect of initial concentration, light source and pH of solution medium. About 90.5% of 10 ppm solution was removed at 28°C when illuminated under 4 blue fluorescent lamps of 20 W for 4 hours. Methylene blue removal rate was found to be efficient and comparable for the illumination under near UV light, sunlight, 4 white fluorescent lamps, 4 dark fluorescent lamps and 4 blue fluorescent lamps. Amount of methylene blue intermediates produced in the photodegradation processes was determined with the help of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis.

          The photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution was carried out using titanium dioxide coated on glass as photocatalyst. The experiments were run under the illumination of blue fluorescent lamps. TiO2 coated glass was prepared by sol-gel technique. Air was pumped into the mixture to ensure continuous supply of oxygen in the mixture. Surface morphology of the TiO2 coated glass was studied using SEM-EDX analysis. The existence ratio of titanium to oxygen was approximately 1:2 which matched the molecular formulae of TiO2. Methylene blue removal rate was studied based on the effect of initial concentration, light source and pH of solution medium. About 90.5% of 10 ppm solution was removed at 28°C when illuminated under 4 blue fluorescent lamps of 20 W for 4 hours. Methylene blue removal rate was found to be efficient and comparable for the illumination under near UV light, sunlight, 4 white fluorescent lamps, 4 dark fluorescent lamps and 4 blue fluorescent lamps. Amount of methylene blue intermediates produced in the photodegradation processes was determined with the help of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis.

Development of Standard Reference Material-Metals from the Effluents of Electroplating Industry

S.S. Raghav*, Tuhina Tripathi, C.S. Sharma and S.D Makhijani

            The use of certified standards for heavy metals is quite expensive in day to day measurements and therefore a study has been carried out for the preparation and development of ‘Standard Reference Material-Metals‘from the effluents of electroplating industry. Samples from electroplating industrial effluents were collected three times to observe the presence of various metals, validation and for preparation of ‘Standard Reference Material‘-Metals. Bulk sample (100 liters) of effluent was collected from Delhi based electroplating industrial unit and after treatment with polyelectrolyte the sample was analyzed. The prepared sample was analyzed for Cu, Cr and Ni metals for preparation of ‘Reference Material‘(abc) and control samples (def) of nearly same concentrations were also prepared and analyzed. The stability of developed Reference Material has been thoroughly studied at room temperature (24-320c) for one year in order to assess stability, degradability (if any) in the solution and consequent in reference and control samples due to storage. For preparation of ‘Certified Reference Material‘ these samples were distributed to 28 reputed environmental and R&D laboratories in the country in triplic(abc-Reference sample, def-control samples) for metal analysis. The analytical data as obtained from 28 laboratories have been compiled, statistically processed in order to certify its use as ‘Reference Material‘ and to certify its reference values. The reference values estimated for Cu (abc, def), Cr (abc, def) and Ni (abc, def) were calculated as 2.08±0.052mg/l, 1.96±0.047 mg/l, 6.11±0.43 mg/l, 1.42±0.073 mg/l and 4.25±0.085 mg/l, 2.52±0.045 mg/l respectively and the acceptable ranges for Cu (abc, def), Cr (abc, def) and Ni (abc, def) were calculated as 1.99-2.16 mg/l, 1.85-2.02 mg/l, 5.33-6.50 mg/l, 1.32-1.56 mg/l and 4.10-4.46 mg/l, 2.45-2.63 mg/l respectively.

Distributions of Copper and Zinc in Different Fractions of Particle Sizes in Road Dust Samples in Irbid City, Jordan using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Adnan M. Massadeh

Road dust samples were taken from areas of high traffic flows in Irbid city, Jordan. A series of 90, 106, 125, 250, 1000 and < 2000 mm road dust particle sizes were investigated throughout to evaluate the ratio between metal content in each particle size and total metal contents. Atomic absorption spectrometry technique was used throughout. Two reference standard materials SRM 2709 and CRM 142 R were tested to validate the proposed method. Results show that there was nothing significant between the measured values for Cu and Zn and their certified values with RSD of less than 5%.

 Modeling of Hydroxy Benzoate Derivatives : A Physico-chemical Approach

P. Sudele, Mamta Thakur*1, S. Thakur2,  A. Agarawal, Javed Ahmed3 and Ranu Bhandari4

            In present study efforts have been made to investigate the quantitative structure activity relationship for two sets of Hydroxy Benzoate derivatives. Physicochemical properties are used as descriptor. Partition Coefficient (logP) is used as the activity for the Hydroxy Benzoate derivatives. The multiple linear regressions are opted to model the Partition Coefficient. The results are discussed critically on the basis of regression analysis.

Simultaneous Determination of  Perindopril, Indapamide, Ramipril, Trandolapril in Pharmaceutical formulations using Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography.

J. N. Harlikar, A.M. Amlani 

            A simple, rapid and selective HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous determination of  Indapamide, Perindopril, Ramipril and Trandolapril from bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation using a mobile phase consisting of 0.05M ammonium acetate(pH 2.5) and acetonitrile in volume ratio of 70:30 at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ minute. A supelco C-18, (3µ, 33 x 4.6 mm) column was used as stationary phase. Quantitation was performed using UV detector at 215 nm. The method shows good resolution between all peaks. The method is sensitive, accurate and precise excipients  present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the assay method.

  Impact of Manmade Environmental Degradations on the Chemical Composition and Organic Production in River Ganga at Kanpur

Amit Kumar and Geeta Watal*

       Impact of effluents on the chemical composition and energy transformation was studied stretch in of Ganga at Kanpur. The effluents, nil in oxygen, acidic to neutral in pH, high CO2, alkalinity, conductance, hardness, chloride, organic matter and BOD load have caused drastic change in Ganga resulting in severe decline in oxygen and sudden increase in above chemical parameters. The magnitude of the impact has however reduced considerably after regulation in the discharge of effluents. The rates of energy transformation and efficiency or production potential have also shown considerable improvement over the years with regulated flow.

Slurry Sampling-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Tin in Fly Ash using Strontium as a Matrix Modifier

Liang Shuxuan, Sun Hanwen, Shen Shigang, Kang Weijun, Ha Jing

           A slurry sampling technique was applied in the development of a sensitive and precise method for tin determination in fly ash samples without sample pre-treatment. The fly ash samples were suspended in a solution containing 0.1% (m/v) xanthan gum. Aliquots of 20ml of these suspensions and 40 ml of 1.0 mg/ml strontium nitrate using as chemical modifier were injected into the electrothermal atomizer. The drying stage is performed by programming a 120 °C temperature, a ramp time of 10 s and a hold time of 20 s on the power supply of the atomizer. The temperature of pyrolysis step was 1200°C. Atomization in pyrolytically coated graphite tube was carried out at 2400 °C. The observed detection limit is 22.64 mg l-1 Sn with a sample volume of 20 ml. The characteristic mass or sensitivity of the proposed method is 22.68 pg. Results obtained for soil certified reference materials and two fly ash samples demonstrate the reliability of the procedures described.

Review Paper :

Biosorption of Heavy Metals

N. Ahalya, T.V. Ramachandra* and R.D. Kanamadi

            The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic ecosystems has become a matter of concern in India over the last few decades.  These pollutants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as a result of various industrial operations. Industrialization in India gained a momentum with initiation of five year developmental plan in the early 50’s. The pollutants of concern include lead, chromium, mercury, uranium, selenium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, gold, silver, copper and nickel. These toxic materials may be derived from mining operations, refining ores, sludge disposal, fly ash from incinerators, the processing of radioactive materials, metal plating, or the manufacture of electrical equipment, paints, alloys, batteries, pesticides or preservatives.  Heavy metals such aszinc, lead and chromium have a number of applications in basic engineering works, paper and pulp industries, leather tanning, organochemicals, petrochemicals, fertlisers, etc. Major lead pollution is through automobiles and battery manufacturers. For zinc and chromium the major application is in fertliser and leather tanning respectively (Trivedi, 1989). Over the few decades, several methods have been devised for the treatment and removal of heavy metals.

Lead and environment

Alka David, V.S. Singh, A. Jain

Lead is a naturally occurring bluish gray metal found in small amounts in the earth's crust. It has no characteristic taste or smell. Metallic lead does not dissolve in water and does not burn. Lead can combine with other chemicals to form what are usually known as lead compounds or lead salts. Some lead salts dissolve in water better than others. Some natural and manufactured substances contain lead  but do not look like lead in its metallic form. Some of these substances can burn-for example, organic lead compounds in some gasolines.

 

 

We are publishing three more Journals :

"Research Journal of BioTechnology"

"Disaster Advances" and "Advances In Management"

We are establishing "Environmental Disaster Research Institute" soon.